Mai im Jahre als Verräter von anderen Creek-Indianern erschossen. Mit dem Indianervertreibungsgesetz des Präsidenten Andrew Jackson im Jahr . Historic Map Karte von Creek Indianer, Alabama & Georgien, durch die Creek Indianer Gave T - Finden Sie alles für ihr Zuhause bei planet-wild.com Creek. Schon vor vielen Jahrhunderten hatten die Indianer im Südosten Nordamerikas eine hohe Stufe der Zivilisation erreicht. Es gab komplexe Gesellschaften.
Indianer in Nordamerika - Südosten: Die ZivilisiertenIndianerstämme der Zivilisierten sind Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminolen. Cherokee Chickasaw Choctaw Creek Seminolen. Cherokee Häuptlinge. Die Muskogee, auch Creek genannt, sind ein Indianervolk Nordamerikas, das ursprünglich aus dem Südosten der USA stammt. In ihrer eigenen Sprache. die Interessen der Regierung(en) durchsetzte und sich im Krieg gegen die Seminole-Indianer in Florida oder gegen die Creek-Indianer ausgezeichnet hatte.
Creek Indianer Acculturation and Assimilation VideoNightwish - Creek Mary´s Blood (DVD End Of An Era) HD Die Muskogee konnten entweder ihr Land verkaufen, um nach Westen zu ziehen, oder in Alabama bleiben und sich der US-Armee sowie der zivilen Staatsmacht unterwerfen. Die Baptisten unter ihnen sind unabhängig von anderen kirchlichen Vereinigungen und stark vom ethnischen Glauben und Riten beeinflusst Synkretismus. Jeder Amtsträger eines Em Spiel Г¶sterreich Ungarn stammte All British Casino einen der 50 Klane, die es in der gesamten Creek- Konföderation gab. Auch sie sollten ins Indianerterritorium umgesiedelt werden.
Aber immerhin gehen Aktion Mensch KГјndigung Kundengelder auf Treuhandkonten, dass Aktion Mensch KГјndigung Verluste (EinsГtze Wraith King Talents Gewinne) hГchsten 60в betragen. - InhaltsverzeichnisSie waren einer der ersten Indianerstämme Nordamerikas, die Bekanntschaft mit den europäischen Einwanderern machten.
The Creek Indians, for the most part, tried to keep the peace with the white man. But unfortunately, that peace was not meant to be. More and more settlers from Europe arrived in America and encroached on Creek Indian territories.
Eventually, war broke out and the Creek Nation divided, some fighting against the white man and other formed allies with them.
Divorce was allowed but rarely occurred in families with children; when it did, the woman retained the children and the family possessions.
The father fasted for four days after the birth of his child, and he maintained an interest in his family. Raising the child, however, was primarily the responsibility of the mother and the leader of her clan.
Babies spent their first year secured to cradle boards; boys were wrapped in cougar skins, while girls were covered with deerskins or bison hides.
A daughter was called by a kinship term or named after some object or natural occurrence associated with her birth. A son was called by the name of his totem, such as bird or snake; as he grew, he might be given a nickname based on some personality trait.
At the age of puberty, a boy was initiated into adulthood in his town and was given an actual name. His first name, which served as a surname, was that of his town or clan, while his second, or personal, name was descriptive of something about him.
Creek girls learned from their mothers and maternal aunts the skills they would need as adults. Boys were instructed primarily by their maternal uncles, though they also felt their father's influence.
Christian missionary schools established in were the first to formally educate Creeks in American culture; a few earlier attempts at founding schools had been unsuccessful.
By the late twentieth century, Creek students generally attended public schools, with a few attending boarding schools.
The census found that 65 percent of Creek adults were high school graduates and 11 percent were college graduates.
He was believed to live in an upper realm that had the sky as its floor. The sun, moon, and planets were seen as messengers to this deity.
The Creeks also worshiped animal spirits. The Green Corn Festival was the principal religious celebration. Although many Creek myths have been lost to history, some were documented by Frank G.
Speck in and He reported that the myths told of animal spirits in the sky world who were responsible for the earth's origin. Master of Breath then placed his own innovations on creation, making the earth as it is now.
Speck wrote in Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association: "The Creeks assert that they were made from the red earth of the old Creek nation.
The whites were made from the foam of the sea. That is why they think the Indian is firm, and the white man is restless and fickle.
Each Creek town kept certain sacred objects. The most famous were copper and brass plates held by the town of Tuckabatchee. The five copper plates were oblong, with the largest being about 18 inches by seven inches.
Although one legend indicated that the objects had been given them by the Shawnee, who may have obtained them from the Spanish, the plates were widely believed to have been bestowed on the Creeks by the Master of Breath.
Contact with European cultures brought a succession of missionaries to the Creek people. Gradually, many of the people began to espouse Christianity.
They continued to observe the Green Corn Festival, although those who had become Baptist or Methodist no longer participated in ceremonial dancing.
With this decrease in participation, the festival began to lose its former significance, and it deteriorated into little more than a wild party.
Christianity became dominant among the Creeks after the removal to Oklahoma. Although some missionaries continued to work among them, most Creek churches were led by preachers who emerged from within the community.
As Debo described: "The Creeks had found in Christianity a means of expressing the strong community ties, the moral aspiration, the mystic communion with nature, the deep sense of reverence that had once been expressed by the native ceremonials.
The early Creeks enjoyed a comfortable living based on agriculture and hunting. Their homeland was fertile and game was plentiful.
With the emergence of European contacts, the Creek hunting industry changed from a subsistence operation to a commercial enterprise.
Trade expanded, and they began to sell not only venison, hides, and furs, but also honey, beeswax, hickory nut oil, and other produce.
They also found markets for manufactured goods including baskets, pottery, and decorated deerskins. As white settlers continued to move into Creek territory, the Indians were crowded into progressively smaller land areas.
This process began in when a cession of two million acres of Creek land was given to the new colony of Georgia so it could be sold to satisfy debts to British traders.
In order to attract additional colonists, the land was sold at bargain prices. An extensive series of other land cessions followed, and eventually the Creek economy collapsed.
According to Indians of the Lower South: Past and Present, in Lieutenant Colonel John Abert wrote to the United States Secretary of War that during the last three years the Creek people had gone "from a general state of comparative plenty to that of unqualified wretchedness and want.
The Removal Treaty of gave land to Creeks who chose to emigrate to Indian Territory in exchange for tribal lands in Alabama.
In addition, each warrior would receive a rifle, ammunition, and a blanket; families' expenses would be paid during the migration and throughout the first year in the West.
Some full-blooded Creeks still farm land in the area of Oklahoma that was settled by the Upper Creeks. The Muscogee Nation operates a bingo hall and stores that sell tobacco products.
Broadening their economic development efforts is a high priority for the tribe. Many of the mixed-blood Creeks live in Tulsa, Eufaula, or other Oklahoma cities, working in a variety of occupations.
Census data from indicates that about two-thirds of the Creek Indians were living in urban settings at that time. At the time of Indian removal, a segment of the Creek people entered into an agreement with the government that enabled them to remain in the East.
They were business people who operated ferries, served as guides and interpreters, and raised cattle. Their descendants are the Poarch Creeks, whose tribal headquarters are located in Atmore, Alabama.
During the early s, some Poarch Creeks began to work in the timber and turpentine industries. Some also became tenant farmers or worked as hired farm laborers.
Beginning in the s, the pulpwood industry became an important element in the Poarch Creek economy. Since the s, Poarch Creeks have been working in other non-agricultural jobs.
According to statistics, 61 percent of Creeks over the age of 16 were in the labor force. Of those who were employed, 19 percent were in managerial or professional specialty occupations, and 26 percent were in technical, sales, and administrative support occupations.
Looking at major industry groups, approximately six percent worked in the agricultural, forestry, fisheries, and mining areas; nine percent worked in public administration; 12 percent worked in retail trade; 19 percent were involved in manufacturing; and 22 percent worked in professional and related services, including health and education.
Throughout their history, the Creeks governed themselves democratically. Each town elected a chief who served for life, though he could be recalled.
Members of each town were informed about issues and participated actively in decision making. Town leaders met in daily council sessions, and when broader councils were called, each town sent several representatives to speak and vote on its behalf.
Although there was no specific law fixing a penalty for misrepresenting constituents, leaders who did so faced severe consequences; for example, after signing a treaty that ceded good hunting grounds to Georgia, a chief returned home to find his house burned and his crops destroyed.
The society was matrilineal, but most positions of tribal leadership were filled by men. While women did not vote, they did enjoy full economic rights including property ownership, and they exerted significant influence on decisions by discussing their opinions with the men of the town.
Each town may also have appointed a Beloved Woman who communicated with her counterparts in other towns. The roles of the Beloved Woman and perhaps other female leaders have been lost to history since European observers ignored them and omitted them from written accounts.
In , a delegation of Creek leaders traveled to New York to negotiate a treaty with President Washington. It was the first in a long series of treaties that ceded tribal land to the United States; with each cession, the tribe was guaranteed unending ownership of their remaining land.
In some cases, treaties were obtained by such fraudulent means as purposely negotiating with a non-representative group of minor chiefs after being refused by the official delegation, or forging the names of chiefs who refused to cooperate.
In the Shawnee chief Tecumseh, whose mother was Creek, organized a rebellion against the United States. The Creek nation split over whether to join the uprising; most of the Lower Creeks supported Tecumseh while the Upper Creeks were rather evenly divided in their allegiance.
This division resulted in the Red Stick War, a devastating civil war within the tribe. Under terms of the peace treaty signed in , the tribe relinquished to the United States 22 million acres of land, including the townsites of some of the Upper Creeks who had fought alongside Andrew Jackson's forces against the rebels.
In addition to gradually obtaining ownership of tens of millions of acres of Creek land, federal and state governments placed a succession of restrictions on the Indians.
Alabama law, for example, prohibited an Indian from testifying against a white man. According to Grant Foreman in Indian Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians , a Creek delegation to the United States Secretary of War in complained, "We are made subject to laws we have no means of comprehending; we never know when we are doing right.
The Removal Treaty of guaranteed the Creeks political autonomy and perpetual ownership of new homelands in Indian Territory in return for their cession of remaining tribal lands in the East.
It specified that each Creek could freely choose whether to remain on his homeland or move to the West. Those who decided to stay in the East could select homesteads on former tribal land.
Land speculators eager to profit from the anticipated influx of white settlers devised a variety of ways to cheat the Indians out of their land, either by paying far less than its true value or by forging deeds.
After an Indian attack on a mail stage—for which a white man was later convicted—a brief civil war pitted Creeks who wanted to remain in the East against those who accepted the concept of relocation.
Finally the federal government ordered forcible removal of all remaining Creeks in Emigrants were subjected to horrible conditions during the government-subsidized trips to Indian Territory.
One group began their journey in December , barefoot and scantily clothed; 26 percent of them died during the four-month journey.
Leaders pushed onward as quickly as they could, not allowing the Indians to conduct funeral services to ensure the dead an afterlife, and sometimes not even allowing the survivors to bury the dead.
More than writers conducted over 11, interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and record the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here.
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Crow Creek. The area of their tribal countries appears on the guide. The topography of the locale in which they lived managed the way of life and society of the Creek tribe.
The Creek tribe lived in various styles of safe houses throughout the years. The Mississippian society individuals fabricated earthwork hills in their towns with grass houses.
Die Muskogee glauben, dass manche Menschen Seelen von anderen Lebewesen oder Geistern einfangen können, um sie für ihre Zwecke zu nutzen.
Die Muskogee-Stämme hatten keine Geisterbeschwörer wie die meisten anderen indianischen Völker Nordamerikas, sondern verfügten über eine differenzierte Priesterschaft Alektca , deren rituelle und politische Macht vom Hiliswa-Besitz abhängig war.
Die Macht wurde vor allem in weiblicher Linie vererbt. Zudem absolvierten die Kandidaten eine längere Ausbildung, um den Ablauf der heiligen Zeremonien und ihre Leitung zu erlernen.
Das rituelle Jahr der Muskogee konzentrierte sich auf vier kalendarische Zeremonien , die den landwirtschaftlichen Zyklus kennzeichneten.
Jede Stadt hielt ihre eigenen Zeremonien ab. Letzteres war die wichtigste Zeremonie und markierte das neue Jahr mit der Wiederentzündung des heiligen Feuers und der allgemeinen Erneuerung der Welt.
Einige Muskogee-Siedlungen feiern diesen zeremoniellen Zyklus weiterhin. Während etwa 20 bis 25 Prozent der Creeks auch heute noch der traditionellen Religion folgen, sind die meisten Christen.
Die Baptisten unter ihnen sind unabhängig von anderen kirchlichen Vereinigungen und stark vom ethnischen Glauben und Riten beeinflusst Synkretismus.
Die Creek begruben ihre Toten zumindest der Elite mit reichen Grabbeigaben unter speziellen Häusern, die für diesen Zweck gebaut wurden.
Der Zugang zu den Totenhäusern war nach Abschluss der Bestattungszeremonie verboten.Rodney Moore. Der Phase 10 Phasen jedoch ging daran, Stammesregierungen zu verbieten Aktion Mensch KГјndigung weitete die Staatsgesetze auf die Muskogee aus. CreekMuskogean-speaking North American Indians who originally occupied a huge expanse of the flatlands of what are now Georgia and Alabama. Merge, edited by John R. It is difficult to arrange their names by area of contribution, since some individuals attained prominence in several fields. Mike Clark. Laurens County. In a March Progressive essay Creek author Joy Harjo recalled her great-grandfather, Marsie Harjo, a Creek Baptist minister: "He represents a counterforce to traditional Creek Indianer culture and embodies a Belgien Schweden Tipp of the split Uruguay Gegen Frankreich our tribe since Christianity, since the people were influenced by the values of European culture. I am 70 years old, and my mother told me when I was a young man that I was quarter Creek. Although Signal Iduna LГјbeck could be arranged by clan leaders, they were usually initiated by the prospective husband, who solicited the permission of the woman's family. At the same time, the United States initiated a program to turn Creeks Lustige Brettspiele ranchers and planters. Alabama Emigrating Co. These basic inclinations conflict with prevailing American values of acquisition and saving for the future. The period of mourning for a widow could be decreased Zweisam.De Test the Lucky Creek Bonus Codes 2021 husband's clan if they so chose.