Games, Poker & Card Games,History Heroes - Children Card GameToys & Games. Wizards Harry Potter Trading Card Game () History of magic Spell No, 24Collectables, Collectable Card Games, CCG Individual Cards. Piquesept is an extinct German card game of the Ace-Ten family that is recorded from to Contents. 1 History; 2 Cards; 3 Play; 4 Footnotes; 5 References; 6 Literature.
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William Henry Wilkinson suggests that the first cards may have been actual paper currency which doubled as both the tools of gaming and the stakes being played for,  similar to trading card games.
Using paper money was inconvenient and risky so they were substituted by play money known as "money cards". One of the earliest games in which we know the rules is madiao , a trick-taking game , which dates to the Ming Dynasty — The two latter suits had Water Margin characters instead of pips on them  with Chinese to mark their rank and suit.
The suit of coins is in reverse order with 9 of coins being the lowest going up to 1 of coins as the high card.
Despite the wide variety of patterns, the suits show a uniformity of structure. Every suit contains twelve cards with the top two usually being the court cards of king and vizier and the bottom ten being pip cards.
Half the suits use reverse ranking for their pip cards. There are many motifs for the suit pips but some include coins, clubs, jugs, and swords which resemble later Mamluk and Latin suits.
Michael Dummett speculated that Mamluk cards may have descended from an earlier deck which consisted of 48 cards divided into four suits each with ten pip cards and two court cards.
By the 11th century, playing cards were spreading throughout the Asian continent and later came into Egypt.
They are dated to the 12th and 13th centuries late Fatimid , Ayyubid , and early Mamluk periods. In fact, the word "Kanjifah" appears in Arabic on the king of swords and is still used in parts of the Middle East to describe modern playing cards.
Influence from further east can explain why the Mamluks, most of whom were Central Asian Turkic Kipchaks , called their cups tuman which means myriad in Turkic, Mongolian and Jurchen languages.
The Mamluk court cards showed abstract designs or calligraphy not depicting persons possibly due to religious proscription in Sunni Islam , though they did bear the ranks on the cards.
Panels on the pip cards in two suits show they had a reverse ranking, a feature found in madiao, ganjifa , and old European card games like ombre , tarot , and maw.
A fragment of two uncut sheets of Moorish -styled cards of a similar but plainer style was found in Spain and dated to the early 15th century.
Export of these cards from Cairo, Alexandria, and Damascus , ceased after the fall of the Mamluks in the 16th century.
The earliest records of playing cards in Europe is believed by some researchers to be a ban on card games in the city of Berne in ,   although this source is questionable.
Among the early patterns of playing card were those probably derived from the Mamluk suits of cups, coins, swords, and polo-sticks, which are still used in traditional Latin decks.
In the account books of Johanna, Duchess of Brabant and Wenceslaus I, Duke of Luxembourg , an entry dated May 14, , by receiver general of Brabant Renier Hollander reads: "Given to Monsieur and Madame four peters and two florins, worth eight and a half sheep, for the purchase of packs of cards".
From about to  professional card makers in Ulm , Nuremberg , and Augsburg created printed decks. Playing cards even competed with devotional images as the most common uses for woodcuts in this period.
Most early woodcuts of all types were coloured after printing, either by hand or, from about onwards, stencils. These 15th-century playing cards were probably painted.
The Flemish Hunting Deck , held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art , is the oldest complete set of ordinary playing cards made in Europe from the 15th century.
The names pique and spade , however, may have derived from the sword spade of the Italian suits. In the late 14th century, Europeans changed the Mamluk court cards to represent European royalty and attendants.
In a description from , the earliest courts were originally a seated " king ", an upper marshal that held his suit symbol up, and a lower marshal that held it down.
In England, the lowest court card was called the "knave" which originally meant male child compare German Knabe , so in this context the character could represent the "prince", son to the king and queen; the meaning servant developed later.
Although the Germans abandoned the queen before the s, the French permanently picked it up and placed it under the king. Packs of 56 cards containing in each suit a king, queen, knight, and knave as in tarot were once common in the 15th century.
In , the Mistery of Makers of Playing Cards of the City of London now the Worshipful Company of Makers of Playing Cards was incorporated under a royal charter by Charles I ; the Company received livery status from the Court of Aldermen of the City of London in During the mid 16th century, Portuguese traders introduced playing cards to Japan.
Packs with corner and edge indices i. The first American-manufactured French deck with this innovation was the Saladee's Patent, printed by Samuel Hart in This was followed by the innovation of reversible court cards.
This invention is attributed to a French card maker of Agen in But the French government, which controlled the design of playing cards, prohibited the printing of cards with this innovation.
In central Europe Trappola cards and Italy Tarocco Bolognese the innovation was adopted during the second half of the 18th century. In Great Britain, the pack with reversible court cards was patented in by Edmund Ludlow and Ann Wilcox.
The French pack with this design was printed around by Thomas Wheeler. Sharp corners wear out more quickly, and could possibly reveal the card's value, so they were replaced with rounded corners.
Before the midth century, British, American, and French players preferred blank backs. The need to hide wear and tear and to discourage writing on the back led cards to have designs, pictures, photos, or advertising on the reverse.
The United States introduced the joker into the deck. It was devised for the game of euchre , which spread from Europe to America beginning shortly after the American Revolutionary War.
In euchre, the highest trump card is the Jack of the trump suit, called the right bower from the German Bauer ; the second-highest trump, the left bower , is the jack of the suit of the same color as trumps.
The joker was invented c. Columbia University 's Rare Book and Manuscript Library holds the Albert Field Collection of Playing Cards, an archive of over 6, individual decks from over 50 countries and dating back to the s.
Since , Vanderbilt University has been home to the 1,volume George Clulow and United States Playing Card Co. Gaming Collection , which has been called one of the "most complete and scholarly collections [of books on cards and gaming] that has ever been gathered together".
Contemporary playing cards are grouped into three broad categories based on the suits they use: French, Latin, and Germanic. Latin suits are used in the closely related Spanish and Italian formats.
The Swiss-German suits are distinct enough to merit their subcategory. Excluding jokers and tarot trumps, the French card deck preserves the number of cards in the original Mamluk deck, while Latin and Germanic decks average fewer.
Latin decks usually drop the higher-valued pip cards, while Germanic decks drop the lower-valued ones. Within suits, there are regional or national variations called "standard patterns.
Some patterns have been around for hundreds of years. Jokers are not part of any pattern as they are a relatively recent invention and lack any standardized appearance so each publisher usually puts its own trademarked illustration into their decks.
But playing cards did not pass through Europe without the English leaving their stamp on them. To begin with, they opted to use the names hearts, spades, diamonds, and clubs to refer to the suits that the French had designated as coeurs, piques, carreaux, and trefles.
We do not know why, but they based two of the suit names spades and clubs on the names of the Italian deck rather than directly translate the French terms piques pikes and trefles clovers ; one possible explanation is the Spanish suits were exported to England before French ones.
The word diamond is also somewhat unexpected, given that the English word for carreau wax-painted tiles used in churches at the time was lozenge.
Whatever the reasons, it is to usage in England that we owe the names that we use for the suits today. The English government passed an Act that cards could not leave the factory until they had proof that the required tax on playing cards had been paid.
This initially involved hand stamping the Ace of Spades - probably because it was the top card. But to prevent tax evasion, in it was decided that from now on the Ace of Spades had to be purchased from the Commissioners for Stamp Duties, and that it had to be specially printed along with the manufacturer's name and the amount of duty paid.
As a result, the Ace of Spades tended to have elaborate designs along with the manufacturer's name. Only in were approved manufacturers finally allowed to print their own Ace of Spades, but the fate of the signature Ace of Spades had been decided, and the practice of an ornate Ace with the manufacturer's name was often continued.
As a result, to this day it is the one card in a deck that typically gets special treatment and elaborate designs. The artwork on English court cards appears to have been largely influenced by designs produced in Rouen, Belgium, which produced large amounts of playing cards for export.
They include details such as kings with crowns, flowing robes, beards, and longish hair; queens holding flowers and sceptres; and knaves that are clean-shaven, wearing caps, and holding arrows, feathers or pikes.
But whatever variety was present, slowly disappeared as a result of the industrious efforts of Briton Thomas de la Rue, who was able to reduce the prices of playing cards due to increased output and productivity.
This mass production he accomplished in the s gave him a position of dominance in the industry, and the smaller manufacturers with their independent designs eventually were swallowed up, leading to the more standardized designs as we know them today.
De la Rue's designs were first modernized by Reynolds in , and then again by Charles Goodall in , and it is this design that effectively still used today.
It was also around this time that double-ended court cards became common to avoid the need to turn the cards, thereby revealing to your opponent that you had court cards in your hand and the existing full-length designs were adapted to make them double-ended.
The Americans are late companions to our historical journey, because for a long time they simply relied on imports from England to meet the demand for playing cards.
Due to the general public's preference for goods of English origin, some American makers even printed the word "London" on their Ace of Spades, to ensure commercial success!
From the earliest days of colonization there are even examples of native Americans making their own decks with original suit symbols and designs, evidently having learned card games from the new inhabitants.
Among American manufacturers, a leading name from the early s is Lewis I. Cohen, who even spent four years in England, and began publishing playing cards in In he invented a machine for printing all four colours of the card faces at once, and his successful business eventually became a public company in , under the name the New York Consolidated Card Company.
This company was responsible for introducing and popularizing corner indices to the English pack, to make it easier for players to hold and recognize a poker hand by only fanning the cards slightly.
Another printing company had already printed decks with indices in Saladee's Patent, printed by Samuel Hart , but it was the Consolidated Card Company that patented this design in First known as "squeezers", decks with these indices were not immediately well received.
A competing firm, Andrew Dougherty and Company initially began producing "triplicates", offering an alternative that used miniature card faces on the opposite corners of the cards.
But new territory had been won, and indices eventually became standard, and today it is hard to imagine playing cards without them.
One final innovation that we owe to the United States is the addition of the Jokers. The Joker was initially referred to as "the best bower", which is terminology that originates in the popular trick-taking game of euchre, which was popular in the midth century, and refers to the highest trump card.
It is an innovation from around that designated a trump card that beat both the otherwise highest ranking right bower and left bower.
The word euchre may even be an early ancestor of the word "Joker". A variation of poker around is the first recorded instance of the Joker being used as a wild card.
The present image shows King Meliadus and his followers amusing themselves while in captivity. Players are shown holding square-cornered cards fanned in their hands, hidden from view, and playing cards onto the table.
They are playing a 4-handed trick-taking game, following suit, and piling tricks cross-wise for ease of counting. The deck uses the Latin suit-signs coins and staves are shown , and the game is being played for money or counters, shown on the table.
For many reasons, including its age and its popularity among Western militaries, it is one of the most universally known card games in existence.
Many other card games have been designed and published on a commercial or amateur basis. In some cases, the game uses the standard card deck, but the object is unique.
In Eleusis , for example, players play single cards, and are told whether the play was legal or illegal, in an attempt to discover the underlying rules made up by the dealer.
Most of these games however typically use a specially made deck of cards designed specifically for the game or variations of it.
The decks are thus usually proprietary, but may be created by the game's players. Uno , Phase 10 , Set , and Blank White Cards are popular dedicated-deck card games; Blank White Cards is unique in that the cards for the game are designed by the players of the game while playing it; there is no commercially available deck advertised as such.
A deck of either customised dedicated cards or a standard deck of playing cards with assigned meanings is used to simulate the actions of another activity, for example card football.
Many games, including card games, are fabricated by science fiction authors and screenwriters to distance a culture depicted in the story from present-day Western culture.
They are commonly used as filler to depict background activities in an atmosphere like a bar or rec room, but sometimes the drama revolves around the play of the game.
Some of these games become real card games as the holder of the intellectual property develops and markets a suitable deck and ruleset for the game, while others, such as "Exploding Snap" from the Harry Potter franchise, lack sufficient descriptions of rules, or depend on cards or other hardware that are infeasible or physically impossible.
Any specific card game imposes restrictions on the number of players. The most significant dividing lines run between one-player games and two-player games, and between two-player games and multi-player games.
Card games for one player are known as solitaire or patience card games. See list of solitaire card games. Generally speaking, they are in many ways special and atypical, although some of them have given rise to two- or multi-player games such as Spite and Malice.
In card games for two players, usually not all cards are distributed to the players, as they would otherwise have perfect information about the game state.
Two-player games have always been immensely popular and include some of the most significant card games such as piquet , bezique , sixty-six , klaberjass , gin rummy and cribbage.
Many multi-player games started as two-player games that were adapted to a greater number of players. For such adaptations a number of non-obvious choices must be made beginning with the choice of a game orientation.
One way of extending a two-player game to more players is by building two teams of equal size. A common case is four players in two fixed partnerships, sitting crosswise as in whist and contract bridge.
Partners sit opposite to each other and cannot see each other's hands. If communication between the partners is allowed at all, then it is usually restricted to a specific list of permitted signs and signals.
Another way of extending a two-player game to more players is as a cut-throat game, in which all players fight on their own, and win or lose alone.
Most cut-throat card games are round games , i. For some of the most interesting games such as ombre , tarot and skat , the associations between players change from hand to hand.
Ultimately players all play on their own, but for each hand, some game mechanism divides the players into two teams. Most typically these are solo games , i.
But in games for more than three players, there may also be a mechanism that selects two players who then have to play against the others.
The players of a card game normally form a circle around a table or other space that can hold cards. The game orientation or direction of play , which is only relevant for three or more players, can be either clockwise or counterclockwise.
It is the direction in which various roles in the game proceed. Most regions have a traditional direction of play, such as:.
Europe is roughly divided into a clockwise area in the north and a counterclockwise area in the south. The boundary runs between England , Ireland , Netherlands , Germany , Austria mostly , Slovakia , Finland , Ukraine and Russia clockwise and France , Switzerland , Spain , Italy , Slovenia , Balkans , Hungary , Romania , Bulgaria , Greece and Turkey anticlockwise.
Games that originate in a region with a strong preference are often initially played in the original direction, even in regions that prefer the opposite direction.
For games that have official rules and are played in tournaments, the direction of play is often prescribed in those rules. Most games have some form of asymmetry between players.
The roles of players are normally expressed in terms of the dealer , i. Being the dealer can be a minor or major advantage or disadvantage, depending on the game.
Therefore, after each played hand, the deal normally passes to the next player according to the game orientation. As it can still be an advantage or disadvantage to be the first dealer, there are some standard methods for determining who is the first dealer.
A common method is by cutting, which works as follows. One player shuffles the deck and places it on the table.
Each player lifts a packet of cards from the top, reveals its bottom card, and returns it to the deck. The player who reveals the highest or lowest card becomes dealer.
In case of a tie, the process is repeated by the tied players. For some games such as whist this process of cutting is part of the official rules, and the hierarchy of cards for the purpose of cutting which need not be the same as that used otherwise in the game is also specified.
But in general any method can be used, such as tossing a coin in case of a two-player game, drawing cards until one player draws an ace, or rolling dice.
A hand is a unit of the game that begins with the dealer shuffling and dealing the cards as described below, and ends with the players scoring and the next dealer being determined.
The set of cards that each player receives and holds in his or her hands is also known as that player's hand. The hand is over when the players have finished playing their hands.
Most often this occurs when one player or all has no cards left. The player who sits after the dealer in the direction of play is known as eldest hand or in two-player games as elder hand or forehand.
A game round consists of as many hands as there are players. After each hand, the deal is passed on in the direction of play, i.
Normally players score points after each hand. A game may consist of a fixed number of rounds. Alternatively it can be played for a fixed number of points.
In this case it is over with the hand in which a player reaches the target score. Shuffling is the process of bringing the cards of a pack into a random order.
There are a large number of techniques with various advantages and disadvantages. Riffle shuffling is a method in which the deck is divided into two roughly equal-sized halves that are bent and then released, so that the cards interlace.
The overhand shuffle and the Hindu shuffle are two techniques that work by taking batches of cards from the top of the deck and reassembling them in the opposite order.
They are easier to learn but must be repeated more often. A method suitable for small children consists in spreading the cards on a large surface and moving them around before picking up the deck again.
This is also the most common method for shuffling tiles such as dominoes.Times Union. Games that Hamburger Sv Eishockey in a region with a strong preference are often initially played Mahjong Solitaire Klassik the original direction, even in regions that prefer the opposite direction. It is not to be confused with Pack o' Cards. Hotels Vegas play an important role in Gratis Puzzle Spielen games Card Game History Risk and Monopoly. The distinction is that the gameplay of a card game chiefly Skl Lotterie GlГ¶ckle KГјndigen on the use of the cards by players the board is simply a guide for scorekeeping or for Holstein Kiel Hannover 96 placementwhile board games the Lotto New York non-card game genre to use cards generally focus on the players' positions on the board, and use the cards for some secondary purpose. French belote Baccarat App go so far as to prescribe that the deck never be shuffled between hands. Partners sit opposite to each other and cannot see each other's hands. The most common type of playing card is that found in the French-suitedstandard card packof which the most common design is the English pattern[a] followed Pferdespiele Kostenlos Online Spielen Ohne Anmeldung the Belgian-Genoese pattern. Originally the term knave was more common than "jack"; the card had been called a jack as part of the terminology of All-Fours since the 17th century, but the word was considered vulgar. In Europe, "playing tarot" decks remain popular for games, and have evolved since the 18th century to use regional suits spades, hearts, diamonds and clubs in France; leaves, hearts, bells and acorns in Germany as well as other familiar aspects of the English-pattern pack such as corner Swe Volley Team indices and "stamped" card symbols for non-court cards. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Card games. This was mostly thanks to Spanish and french immigrants that took First Affair Bewertung favorite games on the road with them. Eine Entgegnung. CCGs can further be designated as living or dead games. The card deck is the most popular deck and includes 13 ranks of each suit with reversible "court" or face cards. Piquesept is an extinct German card game of the Ace-Ten family that is recorded from to Contents. 1 History; 2 Cards; 3 Play; 4 Footnotes; 5 References; 6 Literature. Bavarian card games (1 C, 20 P). S. ▻ Card games of Schleswig-Holstein (5 P). ▻ Skat (card Categories: Card games by national origin · German games. Now, in The Oxford Guide to Card Games, internationally renowned game expert David Parlett provides a fascinating historical guide to cards in Europe and. Women in History Card Game (History Channel) | U S Games Systems | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf.